Heraclitus on Nature
Heraclitus believed that everything is in flux, a view that led him to a doctrine of coincidence of opposites. Barnes interprets this as a naturalistic version of Monism.
Like the Milesians, Heraclitus identified the ruling power of the universe with deity. But he differed from them in important respects.
1. The unity of opposites
Heraclitus formulated the principle that everything is in flux and he asserted that all things coinstantiate at least one pair of opposites. He also embraced the doctrine of coincidence of opposites and the view that all things are modifications of fire. Barnes argues that Heraclitus’s theory violates the laws of logic and makes knowledge impossible.
Heraclitus contrasted his philosophy with the static doctrine of Parmenides and, like Thales and Anaximander before him, emphasized the concept of change in nature. His work on nature pdf was a radical attempt to understand the world through a law-like exchange of opposites symbolized by the element of fire. The book defends B112 against a deflationary reading and argues that grasping the harmony of opposites as the all-pervasive pattern of the universe unavoidably and instantly transforms human life, forcing us to “speak and act truthfully.” (B111)
2. The harmony of the five ideas
Heraclitus’ work seems to be a hodgepodge, with its statements supporting several different readings and containing hidden insights. It seems almost as if he deliberately designed his logoi to be understood only by those who understand its complexity, like a riddle or puzzle.
He chose fire as his ultimate reality, a form of matter that is the least substantial and most evanescent of the elemental stuffs. As with his Milesian predecessors Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes, Heraclitus was a material monist.
Heraclitus, however, added to the Milesian theory by claiming that all things are in flux, that nothing stays the same, and that even opposites are identical. This doctrine of universal flux violates the Law of Non-Contradiction. Plato and Aristotle interpreted Heraclitus’s work as a logically incoherent material monism.
3. The unity of time
Heraclitus’ opening words (DK22B1) seem to promise that he will expound on nature in a way that will have profound implications for human life. His strange method of expression, which he describes as imitating the world with its structural and semantic complexity, is designed to convey multiple messages in each utterance.
He uses puns, paradoxes, antitheses, and parallels to create a richly complex structure in his statements. His utterances are like puzzles or riddles that must be solved in order to grasp their meaning.
Heraclitus’ most famous doctrine is his theory of universal flux and the unity of opposites. But there is more to his work than this. It deals with the cosmological, political, and ethical aspects of life. He tries to show that the unity of these disparate elements is ultimately revealed in a single divine power.
4. The unity of space
Heraclitus was one of the first to make human values a central concern of philosophy. He is also believed to have provided the first metaphysical foundation for philosophical speculation, anticipating process philosophy.
He describes the cosmos as a unity and a whole, exemplified by the pairs of opposite meaning such as day-night, winter-summer, war-peace, hunger-satiety, and life-death. He suggests that this unity and wholeness is a fundamental principle of reality that cannot be denied.
Some scholars have interpreted Heraclitus as a monist, although others argue that his views are more subtle and do not necessarily imply a denial of the Law of Non-Contradiction. Heraclitus seems to view the theory of nature and the condition of humanity as closely connected, for he begins his work by warning that most people will not understand him.
5. The unity of life
While many scholars, especially historians of Greek thought, have attempted to see a world-system in Heraclitus comparable to those of other archaic thinkers and to identify the unity of opposites as its central theme, it is now clear that Heraclitus does not have a system. His fragments deal with science, politics, and even theology. In fact, he refers to his work as “a kosmos.”
Heraclitus does not view life as a process of transformation into a permanent state; rather, it is a continual flux. In this sense, Heraclitus can be compared to the Platonists, although Heraclitus does not endorse any particular substance as being indestructible. Instead, he envisages a lawlike interchanging of matter, with a portion of fire turning into water and half of this into earth, while maintaining the same relative quantities of each.