The Greek Philosopher Ephesus
Historians of Greek thought have tended to interpret Heraclitus as a systematic thinker, seeking to discern the shape of his world-system. Heraclitus’ truths are revealed by verbal puzzles, which he designed to make the reader work for them.
Heraclitus insists that all things flow into one another. He also argues that divine power is present in all things, even though humans attribute different names to it.
The Book of Opposites
Heraclitus developed a theory of nature based on a doctrine of flux, or Panta Rhei, claiming that nothing is permanent and everything changes. He is said to have scorned those who lamented strife and war, arguing that they are intrinsic to transformation and the only means through which things come into existence and pass out of it.
Heraclitus went far beyond the natural philosophy of his Ionian predecessors and made profound criticisms with far-reaching implications. His writings were loaded with complex complexities, as he implies in his introduction (B1), and his philosophy is not easy to grasp. He was a major influence on the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle, and modern commentators have interpreted him as a process philosopher, a material monist, or a mystical thinker.
The Book of Changes
Heraclitus was born in Ephesus, a major city of Ionia, on the west coast of Asia Minor. According to ancient writers Heraclitus was influenced by the thought of the Milesians (Thales, Anaximander and Hecataeus) as well as the philosophers Homer and Hesiod. He also seems to have adopted the concept of a single divine power that manifests itself in all things: “God is day night, winter summer, war peace and satiety hunger” (B67). Heraclitus was convinced that true reality is obscure and he held that only a few can process it properly. Thus he favored aristocratic rule.
Heraclitus was a proponent of flux and the coincidence of opposites, and saw harmony in strife. He also favored a material monist view of the world, and like Xenophanes chose fire as the arche. This prompted Plato to label Heraclitus the “fire philosopher” and this categorization has been widely accepted since antiquity. Heraclitus’s writings are complex and difficult to interpret, and he begs to be read as a puzzle rather than a set of statements to be interpreted.
The Book of Birth
Heraclitus is a philosopher who is notoriously difficult to interpret. He is agnostic, but he also claims to believe in the immortality of the soul (B101). He uses double meanings, and he has a cryptic, aphorism-like style that can be very misleading.
He believed that the universe was a process of change, but unlike most ancient cosmologists he did not see a beginning or an end. Heraclitus also pushed the boundary of philosophy in other ways.
Heraclitus urges moderation, and he teaches that only by observing nature can we understand it. He also calls for sound thinking, and he warns against the arrogance of those who think they know the truth. Heraclitus is also very polemical about his predecessors, showing open contempt for the thought of Homer and Hesiod, and of Pythagoras. His own doctrines were also enigmatic, and he claimed that the true nature of reality was obscured even to him. This was probably a genuine claim, but it sparked much heated discussion among ancient and modern scholars.
The Book of Death
The Book of the Dead, which was put into a deceased person’s tomb, included instructions for their afterlife. It supposedly told them how to avoid certain dangers and provided passwords for getting through the various stages of the underworld. The contents of the Book varied greatly from person to person, because Heraclitus’ riddling statements force readers to interpret them rather than allowing them to be understood at face value.
Heraclitus’ philosophy emphasized flux, the unity of opposites, and the importance of fire. Its influence is widespread, from Parmenides to Empedocles and beyond. Barnes argues that Heraclitus’ paradoxical exposition caused Parmenides to reject Ionian thought, and it may have inspired Plato’s doctrine of flux. Since Hegel, Heraclitus has been seen as a process philosopher. He was a member of an aristocratic family and, according to ancient stories, rejected the honorary title of King of Ephesus. This indicates that Heraclitus preferred to spend his time philosophizing rather than engaging in political activities.